The hottest consolidation is still the development

2022-08-07
  • Detail

On December 27, the press conference of "Blue Book of equipment manufacturing industry: development report of China's equipment manufacturing industry (2016)" jointly sponsored by the Institute of economic management of machinery industry and the social science literature press was held in Beijing. Sunzumei, former Vice Minister of the Ministry of machinery industry, attended the press conference. Wangyaxing, Professor of the Business School of Renmin University of China, pengjianguo, deputy director of the research center of SASAC, niexiudong, vice president of the Research Institute of economic management of machinery industry, attended the conference and delivered a speech. Comrades from research institutes and research centers of the Research Institute of economic management of machinery industry attended the press conference

it is learned that the 2016 blue book on equipment manufacturing industry is divided into four parts: comprehensive, industry, enterprise and special topics. The comprehensive part introduces the development of international equipment manufacturing industry, systematically analyzes the development and existing problems of China's equipment manufacturing industry in 2015, puts forward countermeasures and suggestions, and looks forward to the future; The industry chapter includes seven major sub industries of equipment manufacturing industry such as aerospace and industrial robots; The enterprise part combs the innovation points, specific practices and effects of representative enterprises for technological innovation enterprises, so as to provide reference and Enlightenment for other equipment manufacturing enterprises; The special section reviews and analyzes the hot events in China's equipment manufacturing industry in 2015, and deeply interprets the military civilian integration of the equipment manufacturing industry

"L" shaped bottom consolidation

according to the report, the overall operation of China's equipment manufacturing industry in 2015 was good, the overall scale became stable, the industrial operating efficiency slowed down, and the differentiation between industries and enterprises intensified. The operation of China's equipment manufacturing industry has entered a period of medium speed growth, and the transformation and upgrading has started and moved forward with difficulty; At the same time, the problem of overcapacity in China's equipment manufacturing industry is still prominent, the core technology needs to be broken through, the reform of state-owned enterprises in the equipment manufacturing industry is difficult, and small and medium-sized enterprises are facing the problem of sustainable development. Under the background of the new normal economy, China's equipment manufacturing industry is still facing great downward pressure on the economy. Mainly reflected in:

the main industries show a downward trend. In 2015, the added value of the equipment manufacturing industry showed an overall upward trend, but compared with 2014, the growth rate of major industries of the equipment manufacturing industry decreased. The growth rate of added value of general equipment manufacturing industry and special equipment manufacturing industry is less than 5%, and the growth rate of added value of automobile manufacturing industry and electrical machinery and equipment manufacturing industry is between 5%-10%. In 2015, the growth rate of added value of general equipment manufacturing industry and automobile manufacturing industry both dropped significantly, with the growth rate both falling by more than 5%, and the industry development showed a downward trend

investment demand continued to fall. In 2015, the investment in fixed assets of equipment manufacturing industry still accounted for more than half of the total investment in fixed assets of manufacturing industry. However, the growth rate was significantly lower than the average level of manufacturing industry under the combined influence of low profits, de productivity and other factors. The decline in the growth rate of fixed asset investment indicates that the investment demand has decreased. The fall in the demand for fixed asset investment has become the main reason affecting the economic downturn of the equipment manufacturing industry

import and export decreased significantly. In 2015, the total import and export volume of China's equipment manufacturing industry decreased by 8.14% year-on-year, and the growth rate was lower than that in 2014. As the decline of import growth rate was greater than that of export, the trade surplus increased by 87.80% year-on-year, it can be seen that the external dependence of the equipment manufacturing industry has increased. At present, the slow global economic recovery has limited the driving effect of foreign demand on the export of the equipment manufacturing industry. At the same time, the decline of import volume reflects the lack of domestic demand, The economic downward pressure on the equipment manufacturing industry has further emerged

the loss situation of enterprises is severe. In 2015, the loss area of equipment manufacturing enterprises increased by 2.00% year-on-year, and the loss amount of loss making enterprises increased by 19.49% year-on-year. The loss area of equipment manufacturing enterprises further expanded, and the loss amount of loss making enterprises increased, indicating that the overall operation of equipment manufacturing enterprises is not optimistic

based on the above analysis, plus the factors such as the decline of producer price index in major industries of equipment manufacturing, low asset utilization efficiency and the continuous increase of finished product inventory, the report points out that under the "new normal", the downward pressure on China's equipment manufacturing industry is expected to slow down and stabilize in the coming period, and the industry will continue to consolidate at the "L" bottom and continue to operate at the bottom for a long time, The recovery phase of this round of economic adjustment can be entered only after the transformation and upgrading have achieved obvious results

prominent structural contradictions

the report found that the growth of various sub sectors of the equipment manufacturing industry showed a trend of differentiation. For example, in 2015, the design of agricultural machinery industry, electrical appliances and cartons met the requirements; If the tested carton strength fails to reach the safety and pressure resistance standard, the industry will achieve a profit growth of 10.58% and 11.21% respectively, while the profit growth of the construction machinery industry will decrease by 39.16%. This shows that the structural contradictions of China's equipment manufacturing industry are prominent, and the industrial structure needs to be adjusted, which is mainly reflected in the following aspects:

first, the supply capacity of high-end equipment is insufficient. First, China's high-end equipment manufacturing industry chain is not complete. Although the scale of China's high-end equipment manufacturing industry continues to expand, there are very few enterprises with product design ability. In the absence of design and consumer demand survey, China's high-end equipment manufacturing production has been upgraded. In recent years, China's plastic extruders have been slow in transformation and low in development level due to the lack of attention to R & D and innovation in China. Secondly, the development policy of encouraging the localization of high-end equipment is not perfect. Although China has issued the guidance catalogue for the promotion and application of the first (set) of major technical equipment (2015 Edition), the first (set) of equipment has no market performance, there are operational risks, and the market sales are very difficult. At the same time, due to the lack of implementation rules, it is difficult to operate in reality

second, the supply capacity of service-oriented equipment manufacturing is insufficient. First, the service capacity of enterprises is insufficient. Equipment manufacturing enterprises are also generally confined to the traditional production mode, emphasizing production over service, and emphasizing operation over personalized customization. Secondly, the profit contribution rate of service-oriented equipment manufacturing industry is still very low. The 2014 survey on service innovation in China's equipment manufacturing industry shows that only 6% of enterprises' service revenue accounts for more than 20%, which is far from the survey data of 26% of the global manufacturing industry. In terms of net profit, 81% of the surveyed enterprises' service net profit contribution rate is less than 10%, and the remaining enterprises' service net profit contribution rate basically hovers between 10% and 20%. Finally, the level of service provision is uneven. At present, many leading equipment manufacturing enterprises and characteristic advantage enterprises have taken R & D design and overall solutions as important businesses, but most enterprises are still in the basic service stage and do not carry out in-depth services. Enterprises in economically developed regions have a strong initiative to carry out service-oriented manufacturing, while many provinces in the central and western regions have limited willingness to carry out service-oriented manufacturing due to the limitations of development stages and basic conditions

third, the product quality of equipment manufacturing industry is not high. First, the quality foundation is weak. The overall level of the standard system is backward, the structure is unreasonable, the standard update speed is slow, and the standard development ability is relatively weak. The international voice is not strong. According to statistics, China's leading formulation of international standards accounts for less than 0.5%, and the "standard age" is more than twice that of developed equipment manufacturing countries such as Germany, the United States, the United Kingdom and Japan. Secondly, the quality competitiveness is not strong. China's equipment manufacturing industry lacks world-famous brands and multinational enterprises. On the one hand, the brand construction of equipment manufacturing industry lags behind, and the investment in brand design, brand construction and brand maintenance is seriously insufficient; On the other hand, the quality of equipment manufacturing products is not high. Every year, the equipment manufacturing industry suffers serious losses due to quality problems and technical trade measures. Finally, the quality reputation is not high. Some equipment manufacturing enterprises that lack quality integrity try their best to reduce costs by lowering standards and cutting corners. Some behaviors even become "hidden rules". The phenomenon of counterfeiting high-end equipment manufacturing brands continues despite repeated prohibitions, and the content of counterfeiting technology is increasing

overcapacity is still serious

under the influence of external environment and internal structural contradictions, the overcapacity situation in some industries of China's equipment manufacturing industry is still very serious

according to the report, in order to solve the problem of overcapacity in the equipment manufacturing industry, we should start from the following aspects:

first, we should carry out international cooperation to transfer some excess capacity. Equipment manufacturing enterprises carry out international capacity cooperation and transfer industries overseas by jointly establishing overseas industrial parks and exploring international market space, which is conducive to the digestion of excess capacity and the optimization and upgrading of industries. At the same time, in the context of the "the Belt and Road", accelerate the implementation of the "going global" strategy, promote the internationalization of Chinese equipment such as railway, power and communication, encourage equipment manufacturing enterprises to set up technology and engineering research and development centers in developed countries in Europe and the United States, set up production, distribution and operation and maintenance centers in countries with large market potential and strong industrial supporting facilities, and establish and improve the "going global" service system and cross-border industrial cooperation mechanism

the second is to support mergers and acquisitions and enhance the effect of industrial clusters. At the policy level, we should implement the policies related to enterprise merger and reorganization, finance and taxation, investment and financing, land, social security and so on, actively and steadily carry out the pilot of M & A loans and M & a funds, and increase the financial support for enterprise M & A. At the enterprise level, with the goal of enhancing core competitiveness and achieving sustainable development, and with capital as the link, carry out strong alliances, horizontal mergers and acquisitions or upstream and downstream integration of the industrial chain, change the small-scale, scattered and disorderly competition of some enterprises, and enhance the industrial cluster effect of the equipment manufacturing industry

finally, eliminate "zombie enterprises" and resolutely remove excess capacity. In accordance with the measures of enterprise subject, government promotion, market guidance and disposal according to law, give full play to the forced role of the market mechanism, study and formulate a comprehensive supporting policy system, and deal with the "zombie enterprises" whose operation is difficult to maintain in an orderly and classified manner according to local conditions

The report points out that according to the gap between the development of equipment manufacturing industry and the international frontier, China's equipment manufacturing industry can be divided into different types, and different strategies can be used to guide the development of different types of equipment manufacturing enterprises

support high-end equipment manufacturing industry. First, support large-scale applications. We will improve the insurance compensation mechanism for the first major technical equipment, give full play to the leverage of financial funds, leverage the insurance market, open up the high-end equipment manufacturing market, and achieve multi-party benefits. Second, support scientific and technological breakthroughs. Enhance the independent innovation capability and industrialization level of high-end equipment manufacturing industry. Local governments can cooperate with financial institutions to support appropriate equipment manufacturing enterprises to acquire advanced technologies, intellectual property rights and high-end brands through overseas mergers and acquisitions, and support local enterprises to set up R & D centers overseas to promote technological innovation and accelerate development. Places with conditions can attract investment overseas to attract high-end equipment manufacturing enterprises to set up factories in China, which can not only meet domestic needs, but also serve as an export base

maintain leading equipment manufacturing industry. China's high-speed rail, nuclear power, shipbuilding and other equipment manufacturing industries have been at or near the world's highest level. Its main task is to solve the problem of the last "kilometer", strengthen the digestion and absorption of technology for the parts that have not been localized, and maintain the development of leading equipment manufacturing industry by accelerating the construction of national manufacturing innovation center. Targeted support for the leading equipment manufacturing industry to "go global" and strengthen the linkage between the upper and lower levels

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