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Technological innovation and industrial upgrading promote the global manufacturing industry migration

the trend of manufacturing industry transfer has a great relationship with the future and destiny of the country. There have been four large-scale manufacturing migrations around the world, and the innovation factor is an important driving force to promote the large-scale manufacturing migration. At present, the biggest reality facing the upgrading and migration of manufacturing industry is the decline of total factor productivity

it is generally believed that there have been four large-scale manufacturing migrations around the world.

for the first time, at the beginning of the 20th century, Britain transferred part of its "excess capacity" to the United States

for the second time, in the 1950s, the United States transferred traditional industries such as steel and textile to defeated countries such as Japan and Germany

for the third time in the 1960s and 1970s, Japan and Germany transferred labor-intensive processing industries such as light industry and textile to the "four little dragons" in Asia and some Latin American countries

the fourth time in the early 1980s, developed countries such as Europe, America and Japan and emerging industrialized countries such as the Asian "four little dragons" transferred labor-intensive industries and low-tech and high consumption industries to developing countries. Therefore, China has gradually become the largest recipient and beneficiary of the third world industrial transfer for more than 30 years

professional institutions such as McKinsey and Boston Consulting Group, as well as various economists and media, analyze the transfer of global manufacturing industry from the perspective of "cost structure" (including the comprehensive costs of manpower, land, energy, institutional transaction costs and so on), and then study and judge whether the future manufacturing industry will flow to low-cost countries such as India and Vietnam, or return from China to Europe and the United States. The important role of innovation factors in the process of global manufacturing migration has not received enough attention

United States: undertake global manufacturing transfer with manufacturing process innovation

the process of the United States undertaking global capacity transfer and realizing the rise of manufacturing industry is very long. Even around 1850, the United States already had 7 of the world's top 10 industrial enterprises, which does not mean that the United States has truly become a manufacturing power. In the industrial and technological competition, it was not until around 1920 that the American manufacturing industry completely stood on the top of the undisputed world, which was mainly due to the comprehensive innovation of the United States in manufacturing and product

in the early 20th century, great inventions and enterprises flashed around the United States. Ford's Model T car and Cadillac's electronic starting device opened the automotive era of mankind. Warner Brothers' jazz singer led to the prosperity of audio films. Stainless steel and artificial gum reshaped the American manufacturing industry, and electrification comprehensively upgraded the industrial infrastructure of the United States

in particular, the large-scale promotion of assembly line production and mass production can not only dilute the fixed cost, but also bring a large number of engineers together to engage in technological research and development, which greatly promotes scientific and technological innovation. At that time, the organizational form of British factories was relatively traditional, and small and medium-sized workshops were the favorite of British society, but such enterprises could not achieve economies of scale and systematic R & D innovation

by the 1920s, the gap between Britain and the United States in the field of manufacturing had been huge. At that time, data showed that the proportion of R & D expenditure in the national output of the United States was as high as 2.5%, while that of Britain was only 2% in the same period; The proportion of civil engineers in the total employed population in the United States has reached 13%, significantly ahead of 5% in Britain. In 1929, the three pillar industries of the British economy were railway and shipping, tobacco and alcohol, and textiles, while the top three advantageous industries of the United States were agricultural equipment and engineering machinery, vehicles and aircraft, steel and non-ferrous metals. Britain, an industrial power aiming at global competition, has fallen to rely on tobacco and alcohol for survival

Japan and Germany: undertake the transfer of global manufacturing industry with collaborative system innovation

after World War II, the United States gave priority to Germany and Japan to develop traditional industries such as steel, textile and light industry in the implementation of the industrial plan to revitalize Europe and Japan. However, Germany and Japan are unwilling to accept this industrial arrangement. If they passively accept the transfer of low-end manufacturing, they will always lose out to the United States in industrial competition in the future. Since then, Germany and Japan have not only focused on the development of high-value export industries such as automobiles, machinery and electronics, but also, more importantly, undertaken the transfer of global manufacturing industry with an efficient and complete national industrial cooperation system

why can Germany and Japan have the most powerful SME group in the world? Germany calls this "invisible champion enterprise" and Japan calls it "tiny world top enterprise". The industrial structure of Germany and Japan is becoming more and more refined. Many companies have studied only one part and made only one product for decades. They are world-famous and have very good benefits. The products they make are unique technologies honed based on their targeted market. These "invisible champion enterprises" do not seek to become bigger, but strive to become the "only enterprise" with some kind of world first. So far, if many high-end manufacturing industries in China do not use key materials and core components from Germany and Japan, such as aviation glass, chips, bearings, optoelectronic products, their competitiveness will be greatly reduced

Germany and Japan are world leaders in basic industrial technology, which is a major foundation for the two countries to always maintain a winner position in the global manufacturing migration. For example, China has the largest rare earth reserves in the world, but it lacks technology to turn it into materials. These materials and technologies have been developed through decades of accumulation. These materials can be nanoscale and placed in chips. These require special machine tools and equipment, which the United States does not have, but Germany and Japan do

semiconductors are known as "information grain". Advanced lithography machines are used to manufacture semiconductor chips. 70% of the world's semiconductor lithography machines are made in Japan, and Germany supplies the core optical components. Lithography machine is the most precise, critical and expensive equipment in all machines that human beings can manufacture so far. When lithography is carried out on the chip, the positioning accuracy reaches 0.01 micron, which is equivalent to one hundredth of the hair

South Korea: undertake global manufacturing transfer through industrial chain integration and innovation

in the process of manufacturing capacity transfer to the Asia Pacific region, Taiwan, China and South Korea have played an important role. Among them, Taiwan, China is skilled in OEM, and South Korea is stronger than industrial chain integration. However, do not ignore the role of innovation factors. Taiwan's semiconductor manufacturing level is world-class. Hon Hai Precision (Foxconn in the mainland) has assembled almost all Apple iPhones and iPads, while TSMC and MediaTek are world-class giants in the field of chip manufacturing

it began in the early 1990s. American companies were responsible for the design, and Taiwan, China was responsible for the OEM wafer factory. The investment was huge. From 4 inches, 6 inches, 8 inches to 12 inches now, from wafer manufacturing to cutting, packaging, testing, it was done by different companies in Taiwan, forming an unprecedented huge industrial chain, accounting for more than half of the global chip manufacturing market share. At present, TSMC has achieved the 16 nanometer process. Huawei Hisilicon and Spreadtrum in the mainland must adopt the TSMC process in order to realize the mass manufacturing of the designed high-end chips

iphone and iPad are only "laboratory products" in apple. There is a big gap between whether they can become mass consumer goods - can anyone produce this product on a large scale. It is not too difficult for a laboratory to design a product and then take a long time to produce a sample. However, large-scale manufacturing, and those workers without technical background are required to manufacture, which requires a very reasonable planning process and a very accurate mold design. There are many patented technologies involved. These molds are designed by Hon Hai itself and have a "cross licensing" relationship with apple. In other words, to achieve mass production of a product, we must use these patents in the production process

Samsung Electronics is the pillar of South Korea's manufacturing industry, and its international competitiveness is based on the "full industry chain" model, that is, all-round investment in chips, flash memory, LCD panels, flat panel TVs, and so on. Samsung's "whole industry chain" model pursues not only cost advantage, but also technology accumulation and innovation breakthrough

"whole industry chain" mode can enable SamSung of South Korea to deeply understand technology and realize efficient technological innovation and product innovation. After successfully mastering the storage and non storage civil building sound insulation design code gbj118 (8) storage chip technology, Samsung Electronics has successively mastered TFT-LCD, PDP, organic light emitting display (OLED), mobile chip, flash memory chip and other core technologies. In fact, these technologies are all semiconductor technologies from the root. These semiconductor chip technologies largely benefit from the previous in-depth grasp of memory chip technology, and it is much easier to expand to other chip technologies

China: undertake global manufacturing transfer with its system strength

Chinese Mainland really began to undertake global manufacturing transfer after 2000. At present, the well-known bat, as well as manufacturers and brands related to hardware manufacturing such as Haier, Lenovo, Huawei, ZTE, Xiaomi and Foxconn, are gradually maturing. China's manufacturing industry has formed a huge system that is self-sufficient, can OEM for overseas brands and launch its own products, and statistics and processing the experimental data. This system was collectively referred to as "red supply chain" for the first time in the Financial Times published in September 2013. At present, the profit margin of China's manufacturing industry is still relatively low on the whole, but the system advantage has been formed

the profit margin of many smart, home appliances and PC products exported by China is less than 5%. People take it for granted that 95% of the profits are earned by others. Entrepreneurs worry all day, workers are tired, and the country consumes resources and leaves pollution, and finally can only make a little money from it. Many people don't understand that behind this profit margin is China's strong industrial system and market system

in addition to the introduction of some core and high-end electronic components, the 95% part is that enterprises need to pay workers a few yuan, pay factory rent a few yuan, pay utilities a few yuan, pay various taxes a few yuan, pay agents a few yuan Commission, pay logistics fees a few yuan, pay accessories manufacturers a few yuan... This is the largest part of the product cost

after that, the cost will not disappear for no reason, but only represents the transfer of RMB from some people to others. To supply accessories, accessory manufacturers undoubtedly need their own labor, management, factory rent, water and electricity, logistics, warehousing, etc; If the power supply bureau wants to supply power, it needs power construction, power station construction, even coal mining and power equipment manufacturing; To provide efficient logistics, logistics companies need vehicles, drivers and pay for highways; In the next step, we need to build roads, steel and cement, and... On the surface, the profit margin is less than 5%, but in essence, we need the strong support of the whole country's raw material industry, energy industry, infrastructure, logistics network, supporting industries, and market system

the reliability and speed of the manufacturing industry are more important than the price, and the shortage definitely brings more losses than the high price. Relying on China's investment in a large and complete supply chain and infrastructure, Chinese suppliers are seen by foreign companies as faster and more reliable

for manufacturing powers such as Europe, America, Japan and South Korea, "red supply chain" is a

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